All rights were to the owner of the slave, with the slave having no rights of self-determination either to his own person, or to that of his spouse, or his children. They distinguish systematic breeding—the interference in normal sexual patterns by masters with an aim to increase fertility or encourage desirable characteristics—from pro-natalist policies, the generalized encouragement of large families through a combination of rewards, improved living and working conditions for fertile women and their children, and other policy changes by masters. Workers were assigned to the task for which they were best physically suited according to the overseer. The second class position of the slave was not limited to his relationship with the slave master, but was to be in relation to all whites. Franklin Frazier , in his book The Negro Family, stated that "there were masters who, without any regard for the preferences of their slaves, mated their human chattel as they did their stock.
The imbalance was greater in the "selling states", where the excess of women over men was per thousand. At the same time, the Upper South had an excess supply of slaves because of a shift to mixed crops agriculture, which was less labor-intensive than tobacco. Slaves were considered subject to white persons. Many recounted that at least a portion of slave owners continuously interfered in the sexual lives of their slaves usually the women. During this time period, the terms "breeding slaves", "child bearing women", "breeding period", and "too old to breed" became familiar. The laws that ultimately ended the Atlantic Slave Trade came about as a result of the efforts of abolitionist Christian groups such as the Society of Friends , known as Quakers, and Evangelicals led by William Wilberforce , whose efforts through the Committee for the Abolition of the Slave Trade led to the passage of the Slave Trade Act by the British Parliament in Field slaves and House slaves Slaves dancing on a South Carolina plantation. The slave narratives also testified that slave women were subjected to arranged marriages, forced matings, sexual violation by masters, their sons or overseers, and other forms of abuse. Men tended to be assigned to large field gangs. Invention of the cotton gin enabled the profitable cultivation of short-staple cotton, which could be produced more widely than other types; this led to King Cotton throughout the Deep South. Slaveholders began to think that slavery was grounded in the Bible. Louisville, Kentucky , on the Ohio River was a major slave market and port for shipping slaves downriver by the Mississippi to the South. Slave narrative In the antebellum years, numerous escaped slaves wrote about their experiences in books called slave narratives. The second class position of the slave was not limited to his relationship with the slave master, but was to be in relation to all whites. The demand for labor in the area increased sharply and an internal slave market expanded. This view was inspired in part by a reinterpretation of the Genesis passage "Cursed be Canaan; The lowest of slaves Shall he be to his brothers" Genesis 9 ; Ham, son of Noah and father of Canaan, was deemed the antediluvian progenitor of the African people. They was weighed and tested. Skeptics maintain that reports from witnesses were apocryphal , and never specified a particular place in which breeding practices were alleged to have occurred. All rights were to the owner of the slave, with the slave having no rights of self-determination either to his own person, or to that of his spouse, or his children. Slaveholders looked at the fertility of slave women as part of their productivity, and intermittently forced the women to have large numbers of children. Fogel argues that when planters intervened in the private lives of slaves it actually had a negative impact on population growth. New Orleans had the largest slave market in the country and became the fourth largest city in the US by and the wealthiest, mostly because of its slave trade and associated businesses. On large plantations, slave families were separated for different types of labor. Workers were assigned to the task for which they were best physically suited according to the overseer. Some whites used the Bible to justify the economic use of slave labor. The invention of the cotton gin enabled expanded cultivation in the uplands of short-staple cotton, leading to clearing lands cultivating cotton through large areas of the Deep South, especially the Black Belt. They distinguish systematic breeding—the interference in normal sexual patterns by masters with an aim to increase fertility or encourage desirable characteristics—from pro-natalist policies, the generalized encouragement of large families through a combination of rewards, improved living and working conditions for fertile women and their children, and other policy changes by masters.
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